Season the beef on both sides with salt, pepper, granulated garlic, and celery salt. Heat the olive oil in a large Dutch oven or heavy pot with a lid over high heat. When hot, place the beef in the Dutch pot and brown well, 4 to 5 minutes on each side. Lift the beef chuck out of the pot and reserve, keeping the pot with the beef drippings over medium heat.
Place the onions in the pot until caramelized. Add the carrots, celery, and sliced garlic and sauté for 5 minutes.
Add the beef broth, beef base, bay leaf, cinnamon stick, rosemary, and thyme.
Return the beef to the pot and bring the liquid to a boil. Cover the pot and place in the oven for 3 to 3 ½ hours, until fork tender.
While the pot roast cooks, prepare the roux. Melt the butter in a sauté pan over medium-low heat and whisk in the flour. Continue to whisk, scraping any browned bits from the bottom of the pan, until the flour mixture becomes a pale brown color and smells toasted and nutty, 15 to 20 minutes. Scrape the roux out of the pan with a rubber spatula and reserve
Place the beet and sweet potatoes chunks on a baking sheet, cover the vegetables with 1 tablespoon olive oil, and roast in the oven (with the pot roast) for 45 minutes or until tender.
Fill a large pot with water and salt and bring to a boil. Working in batches, blanch the carrots, celery, asparagus, and green beans until each vegetable is just tender and cooked through. Drain and cool in an ice bath (half ice cubes and half water in a large bowl). Drain from the ice bath and set aside.
When the pot roast is tender and finished cooking, remove the pot from the oven, gently remove the beef from the pot, and transfer it to a large plate while you prepare the sauce.
Carefully place the pot roast on a burner over medium heat. Remove the cinnamon stick and bay leaf from the pot. Bring the liquid to a boil. Puree the liquid until smooth with a stick blender.
Add the roux and puree until smooth. Simmer for 20 minutes and season to taste with salt and pepper. Place the pot roast in the sauce along with the roasted beet and sweet potato chunks and the blanched vegetables and heat through.
Stir 2 tablespoons of butter into the sauce. Break the beef up into large chunks with a metal spoon. Keep warm.